Title IV has ten sections: Sec. 410-410 Each section details the following areas:
Why Do Language Policies Matter? As the U.S. population becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, schools in both urban and rural areas are experiencing changes in student demographics at a remarkable rate. Language policies that are being enacted in states and districts, determine the degree to which students will succeed in a global economy. We cannot afford to bank on English as the global language.
Providing support to help students achieve their academic potential includes recognizing and investing in summer and out-of-school time learning. Providing equitable access to such programming is key to closing the achievement gap and supporting success for all students. However, disparities in access to summer and out-of-school supports are well-documented in many schools and communities, and emerging research suggests that, when opportunities are available, low-income families learn about and engage in these settings in different ways than middle and upper income families.
In order to maximize the chances for a strong return on investment in summer and out-of-school learning settings, all families need to be engaged and supported in reinforcing children's learning outside of school. By engaging families in the process of summer and out-of-school learning, it empowers them to take advantage of supports that help children learn and grow - including early childhood programs, museums, libraries, and other community-based activities and programs.
If we care about educational equity, we need to take summer and out-of-school time learning opportunities seriously. Research is increasingly clear that persistent achievement gaps between students from high-and low-income families are substantially linked with access to high-quality learning opportunities outside of school. Often, the students with financial resources are engaged in enriching learning opportunities in which others have little access. Other times, opportunities abound, but families are neither informed nor supported in helping their student gain access.
Participation in high-quality summer and out-of-school time learning programs is associated with several positive outcomes:
Summer and out-of-school learning programs can be effective and are likely to have positive impacts when they engage students in learning activities that are hands-on, enjoyable, and have real-world applications. Successful programs should be guided by grade-level curricular standards and led by experienced teachers, but should not merely replicate the same teaching and learning patterns that students participated in throughout the typical school day/year (e.g., students receiving more of the same). Small group learning experiences with individual support offer the best learning opportunities.
Give the people what they want! Listening to and understanding needs of the students and community being served will help to guide the structure and success of summer and out-of-school time learning. Providing incentives such as food, prizes, field trips or financial support might also increase student participation; ask program participants for ideas, introduce incentives immediately after goals are reached, create community linkages, and use incentives carefully.
Difficult economic times can be the catalyst for innovative work and action. It is important to lay the ground work by making a case for why "this" type of program is necessary for the students in your area. A quality plan includes approaching district and community leaders with a clear explanation as to why the summer and out-of-school time is an essential component to ensuring the success of students.
As more and more students from diverse backgrounds populate 21st century classrooms, and efforts mount to identify effective methods to teach these students, the need for approaches that are culturally responsive intensifies. Today's classrooms require teachers to educate students varying in culture, language, abilities, and many other characteristics (Gollnick & Chinn, 2002). To meet this challenge, teachers must employ not only theoretically sound but also culturally responsive strategies. Teachers must create a classroom culture where all students, regardless of their cultural and linguistic background, are welcomed and supported and provided with the best opportunities to learn.
For many students, the kinds of behaviors required in school (e.g., sitting in one's seat and only speaking when called on) and types of discourse (e.g., "Class, what is the title of this book?") contrast with home cultural and linguistic practices. To increase student success, it is imperative that teachers help students bridge this discontinuity between home and school (Allen & Boykin, 1992).
Teacher self-reflection is an important part of the personal dimension. By honestly examining their attitudes and beliefs about themselves and others, teachers begin to discover why they are who they are, and can confront biases that have influenced their value system (Villegas & Lucas, 2002). Because teachers' values impact relationships with students and their families, teachers must reconcile negative feelings towards any cultural, language, or ethnic group. Often teachers are resistant to the notion that their values might reflect prejudices or even racism towards certain groups. When teachers are able to rid themselves of such biases, they help to create an atmosphere of trust and acceptance for students and their families, resulting in greater opportunity for student success.
Another important aspect of the personal dimension is exploration. It is crucial that teachers explore their personal histories and experiences, as well as the history and current experiences of their students and families. With knowledge comes understanding of self and others, and greater appreciation of differences. When teachers are unbiased in their instruction and knowledgeable about themselves and their students, they can better respond to the needs of all their students.